Technology File - Environmental Technology Here we present our environmental technology through illustrations and photographs.

Technology File - Safety Technology

Gasoline / Diesel / Drivetrain

Introducing the technologies used in Toyota’s gasoline vehicles, diesel vehicles, and drivetrains.

Drivetrain

  • High Efficiency Gasoline Combustion

    Global Top LevelColumn

    High Efficiency Gasoline Combustion

    Combustion designed to get the most power from each drop of gasoline.

    <Maximum Thermal Efficiency> Global Top Level1High Efficiency Gasoline Combustion

    Combustion designed to get the most power from each drop of gasoline.

    Our gasoline engines don’t offer power or fuel efficiency alone, but provide both. They use combustion technologies and loss reduction technologies such as the Atkinson cycle and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) established through our hybrid development. Our goals are “high tumble2” and “high compression ratio3.” The first step in achieving these was our optimization of the intake port shape. This made it possible to achieve a high level of tumble without reducing airflow, increasing combustion speed and producing a high compression ratio. This greatly improves fuel efficiency performance for an environmentally friendly, fun to drive experience.

    1. As of November 2014. According to Toyota Motor Corporation.
    2. Tumble: Vertical swirl of air drawn into cylinder. It creates an optimal mix of fuel and air.
    3. Compression ratio: Ratio of maximum cylinder volume to minimum cylinder volume. The higher the compression ratio, the greater the thermal efficiency, making it possible to provide both high output and high fuel efficiency.
    High Efficiency Gasoline Combustion

    Close

  • Direct-injection Technology (D-4S/D-4ST)

    Direct-injection Technology (D-4S/D-4ST)

    Using the best features of both direct injection and port injection to boost engine performance.

    Direct-injection Technology (D-4S/D-4ST)

    Using the best features of both direct injection and port injection to boost engine performance.

    The D-4S1 (and the turbo D-4ST2) uses a pioneering Toyota-developed direct-injection system that uses two port-injection injectors and internal direct-injection injectors in each cylinder. The system switches between port injection and direct injection depending on driving conditions, providing both high fuel efficiency and performance. The lineup also includes the D-43 (and the turbo D-4T4) fuel injection system, which uses only direct-injection. These engines meet a wide range of customer needs.

    1. D-4S: Direct injection 4 stroke gasoline engine Superior version
    2. D-4ST: Direct injection 4 stroke gasoline engine Superior version with Turbo
    3. D-4: Direct injection 4 stroke gasoline engine
    4. D-4T: Direct injection 4 stroke gasoline engine with Turbo
    Direct-injection Technology (D-4S/D-4ST)

    Close

  • Atkinson Cycle

    Atkinson Cycle

    Adjusts air volume based on driving conditions. Fuel efficiency and acceleration go hand in hand.

    Atkinson Cycle

    Adjusts air volume based on driving conditions. Fuel efficiency and acceleration go hand in hand.

    Reducing loss is the key to improving engine efficiency. The Atkinson-cycle engine accomplishes this using a different process for compressing intake air. Valve timing is controlled by mechanisms such as the Variable Valve Timing-intelligent by Electric motor (VVT-iE1) based on driving conditions. The system intelligently switches between Atkinson cycle and regular cycle operation.
    When little power is needed, such as when driving on city streets, air is drawn into cylinders, adjusting the amount of intake required by returning air to the intake port, and generating the power the vehicle needs. Energy waste is cut, improving fuel efficiency. When accelerating, the air intake is increased. It is compressed and combusted together with gasoline, creating a large amount of heat energy.

    1. VVT-iE: Variable Valve Timing-intelligent by Electric motor <intake side>

    Uses Atkinson cycle technologies developed for hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicles.

    Atkinson Cycle
    1. The piston is depressed while the throttle is open, eliminating wasteful resistance.
    2. Valve delayed closure
      Excess intake is adjusted by delaying the timing of valve closure.
    3. Compression stroke/expansion stroke
      Highly efficient system which enables a longer expansion stroke than compression stroke.
    * Conceptual image.

    Close

  • Variable Valve Timing-intelligent by Electric Motor (VVT-iE)

    Variable Valve Timing-intelligent by Electric Motor (VVT-iE)

    Creating powerful acceleration and high fuel efficiency by carefully controlling intake and exhaust valve timing.

    Variable Valve Timing-intelligent by Electric Motor (VVT-iE)

    Creating powerful acceleration and high fuel efficiency by carefully controlling intake and exhaust valve timing.

    The Variable Valve Timing-intelligent by Electric motor (VVT-iE1) controls the opening and closing timing of intake valves based on driving conditions. Even when the throttle valve is open, the intake valve can be adjusted to control the amount of air intake, and the engine can easily switch to the Atkinson cycle, which offers greater thermal efficiency.
    Unlike hydraulic control systems, this system is not affected by engine conditions, making control possible even in cold conditions and before the engine is started. It optimizes intake valve timing based on driving conditions, contributing to greater fuel efficiency and engine performance.

    1. VVT-iE: Variable Valve Timing-intelligent by Electric motor <intake side>
    Variable Valve Timing-intelligent by Electric Motor (VVT-iE)

    Close

  • Cylinder Head with Built-in Exhaust Manifold & Twin Scroll Turbo

    Cylinder Head with Built-in Exhaust Manifold & Twin Scroll Turbo

    Expertly combining and cooling exhaust gas to improve fuel efficiency.

    Cylinder Head with Built-in Exhaust Manifold & Twin Scroll Turbo

    Expertly combining and cooling exhaust gas to improve fuel efficiency.

    The engine uses a water-cooled 4-2 exhaust manifold with a built-in cylinder head that combines the exhaust pipes of the four cylinders facing the turbo into two. This exhaust manifold has been combined with a twin scroll turbo design, with dividing walls between turbine housing flow channels. This reduces exhaust gas temperature and prevents mutual interference between the exhaust gases from each cylinder, increasing turbocharging efficiency. The engine offers excellent response and high turbocharging pressure from low rotation speeds, ensuring high torque at all engine speeds.

    Cylinder Head with Built-in Exhaust Manifold & Twin Scroll Turbo

    Close

  • High Efficiency Diesel Combustion

    Global Top LevelColumn

    High Efficiency Diesel Combustion

    Harnessing all energy without waste.

    <Maximum Thermal Efficiency> Global Top Level1High Efficiency Diesel Combustion

    Harnessing all energy without waste.

    A new port shape and layout that allows even better air access. Air is directed smoothly into the cylinder, increasing intake volume and improving acceleration response and takeoff torque. Furthermore, in addition to optimizing the piston combustion chamber shape, fuel is sprayed evenly throughout the combustion chamber, improving the air usage ratio and controlling combustion. Combustion is performed to minimize the amount of combustion flame that strikes the combustion chamber walls, reducing loss of energy generated through combustion and contributing to greater fuel efficiency.

    1. As of February 2017. According to Toyota Motor Corporation.
    High Efficiency Diesel Combustion

    Close

  • TSWIN

    Global FirstColumn

    TSWIN

    Using rapid temperature changes to prevent energy from escaping from piston walls.

    Global First1TSWIN

    Using rapid temperature changes to prevent energy from escaping from piston walls.

    Toyota has developed TSWIN2 to improve fuel efficiency by reducing the amount of energy lost through piston walls. The top of the piston has been coated with a silica-reinforced porous anodized aluminum (SiRPA) film, which heats and cools rapidly. During combustion it becomes hot, preventing heat from escaping and producing a large amount of combustion gas expansion. During intake and compression stroke it cools, increasing the density of the air intake. These functions maintain engine performance while reducing cooling loss (heat escape) from the piston during combustion by up to roughly 30%.

    1. As of June 2015. According to Toyota Motor Corporation.
    2. TSWIN: Thermo Swing Wall Insulation technology
    TSWIN

    Close

  • Common Rail Fuel Injection System

    Common Rail Fuel Injection System

    Accurate fuel injection at extremely high pressures.

    Common Rail Fuel Injection System

    Accurate fuel injection at extremely high pressures.

    The diesel engine’s system stores fuel compressed by the supply pump in a pressure vessel called a “common rail,” and uses an electronically controlled injection valve to perform injection with a high degree of precision. The fuel injection pressure and nozzle lift, which are not dependent on the engine rotation speed, are directly driven, enabling the system to perform multistage fuel injection, including pilot injection. The high pressure and multistage injection method reduce NOx, PM, and other emissions, and make the engine quieter.

    Common Rail Fuel Injection System

    Close

  • Turbocharger

    Column

    Turbocharger

    Compact turbo that provides high level response and performance.

    Turbocharger

    Compact turbo that provides high level response and performance.

    The engine uses a compact, high-efficiency variable-geometry turbocharger. Despite being roughly 30% smaller than conventional turbochargers, the newly developed turbine wheel provides greater turbo efficiency. The high-rigidity, high-efficiency impeller, also newly designed, provides excellent accelerator response, helping generate maximum torque across a wide range of rotation speeds.

    Turbocharger

    Close

  • Exhaust System (Urea SCR + DPF System)

    Exhaust System (Urea SCR + DPF System)

    A two-pronged approach to cleaning exhaust gas.

    Exhaust System (Urea SCR + DPF System)

    A two-pronged approach to cleaning exhaust gas.

    Toyota has combined the DPF1 exhaust gas emission cleaning system, which collects smoke, with the urea SCR2 exhaust gas emission cleaning system, which effectively reduces NOx (nitrogen oxide) in emissions gas, to achieve an even higher level of environmental performance. Urea SCR offers superb NOx cleaning capabilities, so it also indirectly contributes to improved fuel efficiency (reduced CO2 emissions) and excellent driving performance.

    1. DPF: Diesel Particulate Filter
    2. SCR: Selective Catalytic Reduction
    Exhaust System (Urea SCR + DPF System)

    Close

  • Flex-start Control

    Flex-start Control

    Further boosting smooth and direct takeoff.

    Flex-start Control

    Further boosting smooth and direct takeoff.

    The distribution of power is precisely controlled for the lock up clutch (mechanical drive) and the torque converter (fluid drive) based on takeoff driving conditions. This produces smooth, direct takeoff, and contributes to greater fuel efficiency.

    Close

  • Ultra-flat Torque Converter with Multiple Disc Lock-up Clutch

    Global Top LevelToyota First

    Ultra-flat Torque Converter with Multiple Disc Lock-up Clutch

    Connecting the engine and transmission directly and smoothly.

    Toyota First1<Capacity> Global Top Level1Ultra-flat Torque Converter with Multiple Disc Lock-up Clutch

    Connecting the engine and transmission directly and smoothly.

    A highly controllable multiple disc lock-up clutch and new lock up damper provide smooth acceleration from low speeds and high response across all speeds. They also contribute to higher fuel efficiency. Toyota has also developed a next-generation ultra-elliptic torus that achieves top world class capacity1. The torque converter is roughly 28% more elliptical, helping reduce total length and making the engine more lightweight.

    1. As of February 2017. According to Toyota Motor Corporation.
    Ultra-flat Torque Converter with Multiple Disc Lock-up Clutch

    Close

  • Low Friction Oil Pump

    Global First

    Low Friction Oil Pump

    Reduced parts friction saves energy.

    Global First1Low Friction Oil Pump

    Reduced parts friction saves energy.

    In order to reduce the amount of energy loss that results during transmission control when the transmission generates oil pressure, Toyota has developed the world’s first coaxial dual port oil pump system. The pump case contains a newly developed high efficiency rotor that handles both ports. The sub-output port’s oil pressure is controlled with an oil pressure control circuit that automatically switches depending on driving conditions. This successfully reduces oil pump driveline torque by roughly 30% compared to conventional engines.

    1. As of February 2017. According to Toyota Motor Corporation.
    Low Friction Oil Pump

    Close

  • Wide Range, Close Gear Ratio

    Wide Range, Close Gear Ratio

    Accomplishes smooth driving performance.

    Wide Range, Close Gear Ratio

    Accomplishes smooth driving performance.

    The wide gear range and close gear ratios creates optimal engine operation range, providing exceptional launch start, acceleration performance, and fuel efficiency performance.

    Wide Range, Close Gear Ratio

    Close

  • High Efficiency Technology (Friction Discs, etc.)

    High Efficiency Technology (Friction Discs, etc.)

    Reducing energy loss through friction plate improvements.
    Contributing to higher fuel efficiency.

    High Efficiency Technology (Friction Discs, etc.)

    Reducing energy loss through friction plate improvements.
    Contributing to higher fuel efficiency.

    Grooved designs have been used for clutch and brake friction plates to reduce energy loss. When the clutch is activated these discs ensure it engages securely, and when the clutch is disengaged they reduce the amount of drag torque1. This contributes to increased fuel efficiency, functional reliability, and durability.

    1. Drag torque: The energy lost due to sharing force of nearby oil during the clutch or brake are disengaged.
    High Efficiency Technology (Friction Discs, etc.)

    Close

Show all

Specifications may differ depending on country, region, or model.

PAGE TOP