Technology File - Environmental Technology Here we present our environmental technology through illustrations and photographs.

Technology File - Safety Technology

Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle

Introducing the technologies used in Toyota’s plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  • AEngine (Atkinson-cycle)
  • BHybrid Transaxle
  • CPower Control Unit
  • DBattery (Lithium-ion)
  • EExternal Charging
  • FSolar Panel Charging System

HV

Charging System

Engine (Atkinson-cycle)

<Maximum Thermal Efficiency> Global Top Level1

High thermal efficiency engine produces world-class fuel efficiency.

The Prius PHV features a 1.8-liter 2ZR-FXE Atkinson-cycle engine which offers superb thermal efficiency. It has greatly improved thermal efficiency ……

Engine (Atkinson-cycle)

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Hybrid Transaxle

Global First1

Low loss, compact design for greater fuel and space efficiency.

This unit is composed of a motor, generator, and power split device. The Prius PHV has relocated the reduction gear mechanism (the reduction gear ……

Hybrid Transaxle

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Power Control Unit

The brain of the plug-in hybrid vehicle, expertly controlling electricity.

The power control unit converts AC/DC power and appropriately adjusts the electrical voltage. Plug-in hybrid vehicles powered by motors are ……

Power Control Unit

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Regenerative Braking

Collecting otherwise discarded energy and reusing it as driving energy.

The regenerative braking system reuses vehicle deceleration energy. When brakes are applied or the accelerator is eased off, the rotational energy ……

Regenerative Braking

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Battery (Lithium-ion)

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EV-mode cruising range of 68.2 km1.

The Prius PHV uses a newly developed high-capacity lithium-ion battery. Its total energy capacity of 8.8 kWh is double that of conventional models, ……

Battery (lithium-ion)

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External Charging

Charge easily, whether at home or away.

The Prius PHV has a built in charger which makes it possible to charge it just by plugging the vehicle into a power outlet. ……

External charging

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Solar Panel Charging System

Global First1Column

Converting sunlight into driving energy.

The large solar panel mounted on the vehicle roof generates power for EV-mode cruising. The vehicle’s battery can be charged with sunlight just by ……

Solar panel charging system

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External Power Supply System

The Prius PHV can be used as a mobile power supply.

Supplying electric power to appliances

The electrical power stored in plug-in hybrid vehicles can be supplied to ……

External Power Supply System

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  • Engine (Atkinson-cycle)

    Global Top Level

    Engine (Atkinson-cycle)

    High thermal efficiency engine produces world-class fuel efficiency.

    <Maximum Thermal Efficiency> Global Top Level1Engine (Atkinson-cycle)

    High thermal efficiency engine produces world-class fuel efficiency.

    The Prius PHV features a 1.8-liter 2ZR-FXE Atkinson-cycle engine which offers superb thermal efficiency. It has greatly improved thermal efficiency thanks to its increased cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)2 flow, redesigned intake port shape, and cool air duct. It also uses the Atkinson cycle’s ability to increase the engine’s basic compression ratio, which determines the thermal efficiency, resulting in a compression ratio of 13.0 despite using regular gasoline.

    1. As of December 2015. Internal measurement value.
    2. EGR: Exhaust Gas Recirculation

    The same engine is used in hybrid vehicles.

    Cooled EGR

    The flow volume of the exhaust gas is cooled by the electric EGR valve and is channeled into the intake manifold, decreasing pumping loss and engine cooling loss in the engine. The ERG distribution channels in the intake manifold have been redesigned to increase and equalize the amount of the recirculated EGR distributed into each cylinder, resulting in more efficient combustion.

    Intake port shape optimization

    The intake port provides cylinders with the air they need for combustion. In the Prius PHV, the shape of the intake port has been optimized to produce a more direct flow of air into the cylinder, strengthening its tumble flow3. At the same time, the piston head shape has been changed to maintain the same tumble flow strength while increasing combustion speed.

    1. Vertical swirl of air that promotes air-fuel mixture. The flow in the direction of the piston’s stroke is called tumble flow.
    Cool air duct

    Thermal efficiency is increased by efficiently drawing dense, cold air into the engine. The Prius PHV uses a compact, lower positioned air cleaner to support vehicle bodies with lower hoods. It also has a dedicated intake opening for drawing in large amounts of air when driving at high speeds.

    Engine (Atkinson-cycle)
    1. The piston is depressed while the throttle is open, eliminating wasteful resistance.
    2. Valve delayed closure
      Excess intake is adjusted by delaying the timing of valve closure.
    3. Compression stroke/expansion stroke
      Highly efficient system which enables a longer expansion stroke than compression stroke.
    * Conceptual image.

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  • Hybrid Transaxle

    Global First

    Hybrid Transaxle

    Low loss, compact design for greater fuel and space efficiency.

    Global First1Hybrid Transaxle

    Low loss, compact design for greater fuel and space efficiency.

    This unit is composed of a motor, generator, and power split device. The Prius PHV has relocated the reduction gear mechanism (the reduction gear mechanism which amplifies the motor’s torque) to parallel gears as the drive motor to reduce drive loss by approximately 20%2. Dual-axis structure was used for the motors to reduce the total transaxle length by roughly 12%2. Furthermore, the power control unit is installed on top of the transaxle, making the Hybrid System more compact and lightweight.

    1. As of December 2015. According to Toyota Motor Corporation.
    2. Internal measurement value.
    Hybrid Transaxle

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  • Dual Motor Drive system

    Dual Motor Drive System

    The secret of its powerful acceleration is the power of dual motors.

    Dual Motor Drive System

    The secret of its powerful acceleration is the power of dual motors.

    The Prius PHV uses a Dual Motor Drive system, which uses the generator as a motor for powerful EV-mode cruising torque from two motors. With conventional hybrid systems, the generator cannot provide torque during EV-mode cruising, but by using a one-way clutch, which only conveys rotational power in a single direction, between the engine and the power split device, the motor which was used only as a generator while driving can now also be used as a cruising motor.

    Dual Motor Drive system
    Electrical power is supplied from the battery to both motors

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  • Motor

    Toyota First

    Motor

    A more highly evolved motor for even greater driving enjoyment.

    Toyota First1Motor

    A more highly evolved motor for even greater driving enjoyment.

    The system uses a synchronous AC motor together with the engine for drive power. This synchronous AC motor efficiently generates a large amount of torque from low to high speed operation. The motor speed and torque are freely controllable. This produces powerful, smooth driving. The Prius PHV offers greater motor speeds and uses segmented coil distributed winding for the stator that generates the rotation force, producing greater output in a more compact, lightweight motor.

    1. As of February 2017.

    The same motor is used in hybrid vehicles.

    Motor

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  • Generator

    Generator

    A compact generator that provides the motor with a large amount of electrical power.

    Generator

    A compact generator that provides the motor with a large amount of electrical power.

    The generator uses a synchronous AC motor with high speed axial rotation. This generator supplies a large amount of electrical power when driving at low speeds. This enables the high output motor and engine to be combined for greater acceleration at low and medium speeds. The Prius PHV uses centralized winding of coils for a more compact, lightweight design.

    The same generator is used in hybrid vehicles.

    Generator

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  • Power Split Device

    Power Split Device

    Economically splitting power produced by the gas/petrol engine between the drive train and the generator.

    Power Split Device

    Economically splitting power produced by the gas/petrol engine between the drive train and the generator.

    The power splitting device distributes the power produced by the gas/petrol engine to the drive train and to the generator. To divide the power efficiently, it uses a planetary gear consisting of a ring gear, pinion gears, a sun gear and a planetary carrier.

    The same power split device is used in hybrid vehicles.

    Drive transfer loss is a waste of power.

    The rotating axle of the planetary carrier is directly connected to the gas/petrol engine and rotates the perimeter ring gear and the sun gear inside via the pinion gears. The rotating axle of the ring gear is directly connected to the electric motors, and thus transfers the driving power to the wheels. The axle of the sun gear is directly connected to the generator and converts the power produced by the gas/petrol engine into electric energy. These optimized arrangements and gear ratios reduce drive transfer loss.

    Power Split Device

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  • Reduction Gear

    Reduction Gear

    Drawing a large amount of torque from a compact motor.

    Reduction Gear

    Drawing a large amount of torque from a compact motor.

    The reduction gear is designed to reduce the high rpm of the motors so that the power produced can be transferred to the wheels, amplifying the torque and generating greater driving power. This torque amplification effect, coupled with the higher revving capability of the motors, combines to provide seamless acceleration at will.

    The same reduction gear is used in hybrid vehicles.

    Reduction Gear

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  • Power Control Unit

    Power Control Unit

    The brain of the plug-in hybrid vehicle, expertly controlling electricity.

    Power Control Unit

    The brain of the plug-in hybrid vehicle, expertly controlling electricity.

    The power control unit converts AC/DC power and appropriately adjusts the electrical voltage. Plug-in hybrid vehicles powered by motors are equipped with a power control unit that consists of an inverter, a boost converter, and a DC/DC converter. Low loss elements are used to achieve superb loss reductions.

    The Prius PHV features a more compact power control unit, making it possible to mount it directly above the transaxle and place the auxiliary battery in the engine room, creating a more spacious interior.

    The same power control unit is used in hybrid vehicles.

    Inverter

    Converting electricity and supplying it from the battery to the motor.

    Motors cannot be operated by connecting them directly to the battery. The inverter converts DC supplied by the battery to AC to turn the electric motors and to use in the generator. Conversely, it converts AC generated by the electric motors and the generator into DC to recharge the battery. Dual side cooling, which directly cools power elements, is featured in the Prius PHV, improving cooling efficiency and enabling inverter downsizing and weight reduction.

    Boost converter

    Controlling voltage and boosting low voltages.

    The boost converter controls the voltages of the motor and generator. It steplessly increases the normal roughly 350 V DC supply voltage to a maximum of 600 V DC as required. This means more power can be generated from a small current to bring out high performance from the high output motors, enhancing overall power control unit efficiency.

    DC/DC converter

    Steps down voltage precisely, enabling electricity to be used for purposes other than driving.

    The DC/DC converter steps down the supply voltage from the high voltage battery. It steps down the roughly 350 V DC supply voltage from the battery to 12 V DC, to be used by engine ancillary systems which assist with motor operation and electronic devices such as headlights.

    Power Control Unit

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  • Regenerative Braking

    Regenerative Braking

    Collecting otherwise discarded energy and reusing it as driving energy.

    Regenerative Braking

    Collecting otherwise discarded energy and reusing it as driving energy.

    The regenerative braking system reuses vehicle deceleration energy. When brakes are applied or the accelerator is eased off, the rotational energy of the wheels is used to turn a motor, which functions as a generator. The system coordinates regenerative braking and the braking operation of the hydraulic brakes so that kinetic energy, which is normally discarded as friction heat when braking, is converted to electrical energy and collected by the battery for later reuse in normal driving mode. Typically, driving in city traffic entails a cycle of acceleration followed by deceleration. The energy recovery ratio under these driving conditions can therefore be quite high. To take advantage of this situation, the system proactively uses regenerative braking when running the car in the low speed range.

    The same regenerative braking is used in hybrid vehicles.

    Regenerative Braking
    Mechanism conceptual diagram

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  • Battery (Lithium-ion)

    Column

    Battery (Lithium-ion)

    EV-mode cruising range of 68.2 km.

    Battery (Lithium-ion)

    EV-mode cruising range of 68.2 km1.

    The Prius PHV uses a newly developed high-capacity lithium-ion battery. Its total energy capacity of 8.8 kWh is double that of conventional models, producing an EV-mode cruising range of 68.2 km1. Its output has also been dramatically increased, making it possible to experience even smoother, more powerful EV-mode cruising. The energy capacity of the new battery is roughly double that of the previous battery, but the increase in size has been minimized, making it possible to install beneath the luggage room, ensuring sufficient luggage capacity.

    1. JC08 mode (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism measured value). The cruising range achievable using battery power was determined under defined test conditions. Actual EV-mode cruising ranges may vary significantly depending on customer usage environments (weather, traffic conditions, etc.) and driving conditions (sudden acceleration, air conditioner usage, etc.).
    Battery (Lithium-ion)

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  • Cell (lithium-ion)

    Cell (Lithium-ion)

    The smallest battery unit provides a large amount of power.

    Cell (Lithium-ion)

    The smallest battery unit provides a large amount of power.

    Cells are the smallest battery units in plug-in hybrid vehicles. Each individual cell has a voltage of just 3.7 V, but many cells are connected serially to provide a total voltage of up to 351.5 V, a tremendous amount of power sufficient for driving a vehicle. The Prius PHV uses compact, lightweight, high capacity lithium-ion battery cells. Increasing the energy density of conventional lithium-ion batteries makes it possible to increase total battery capacity without increasing battery size. 95 battery cells are optimally arranged beneath the luggage room, creating a flat luggage space.

    Cell (Lithium-ion)

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  • External Charging

    External Charging

    Charge easily, whether at home or away.

    External Charging

    Charge easily, whether at home or away.

    The Prius PHV has a built in charger which makes it possible to charge it just by plugging the vehicle into a power outlet.

    External Charging
    Regular charging

    Regular home electrical wiring can be used to provide the 100 V charging power, so there’s no need for special circuit installation work. We recommend using a high durability power outlet. AC200 V charging requires circuit installation, but it allows the vehicle to finish charging faster than with a 100 V power supply. The vehicle can be charged in roughly two hours and twenty minutes with AC200 V power, or roughly 14 hours with AC100 V power.

    Regular charging
    Rapid charging

    The new Prius PHV supports rapid charging in conformance with the CHAdeMO standard, which is widely used throughout Japan. This enables charging with a larger amount of electrical power than standard charging, reaching an 80% charge in roughly 20 minutes.

    These devices are being installed in a growing number of locations, including rest stops, parking areas, and convenience stores. Please note that membership registration or other contracts may be required, so please check usage conditions in advance.

    Rapid charging

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  • Solar Panel Charging System

    Global FirstColumn

    Solar Panel Charging System

    Converting sunlight into driving energy.

    Global First1Solar Panel Charging System

    Converting sunlight into driving energy.

    The large solar panel mounted on the vehicle roof generates power for EV-mode cruising. The vehicle’s battery can be charged with sunlight just by parking it outdoors. This power is used for EV-mode cruising, air conditioner operation, and to supply AC100 V external power. While driving, electrical power generated from sunlight is stored in the auxiliary battery (12 V). This helps reduce the load placed on the battery and improves EV-mode cruising range and fuel efficiency. In a single day this system generates, on average, enough power to drive 2.9 km2, and under optimal conditions as much as 6.1 km.

    1. As of January 2017. According to Toyota Motor Corporation.
    2. Calculated taking into consideration amounts of loss of each vehicle system, in accordance with the “2015 Labelling Guidelines” issued by the Japan Photovoltaic Energy Association. Daily sunlight data for the Nagoya area for average years between 1990 to 2009 was used (source: NEDO).
    Solar Panel Charging System
    Parked
    Solar Panel Charging System
    Driving

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  • External Power Supply System

    External Power Supply System

    The Prius PHV can be used as a mobile power supply.

    External Power Supply System

    The Prius PHV can be used as a mobile power supply.

    Supplying electric power to appliances

    The electrical power stored in plug-in hybrid vehicles can be supplied to electrical products. The Prius PHV can provide AC power, making it possible to connect devices such as computers directly to the accessory outlet (AC100 V/1500 W) inside the vehicle.

    External Power Supply System

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Specifications may differ depending on country, region, or model.

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